Finetuning PointConv on ModelNet40 Dataset#

In this tutorial we will finetune PointConv on ModelNet40 dataset. The ModelNet40 dataset contains synthetic object point clouds. As the most widely used benchmark for point cloud analysis, ModelNet40 is popular because of its various categories, clean shapes, well-constructed dataset.

The original ModelNet40 consists of 12,311 CAD-generated meshes in 40 categories (such as airplane, car, plant, lamp), of which 9,843 are used for training while the rest 2,468 are reserved for testing.


ModelNet: a consistent, large-scale dataset of 3D objects annotated with fine-grained, instance-level, and hierarchical 3D part information. The corresponding point cloud data points are uniformly sampled from the mesh surfaces, and then further preprocessed by moving to the origin and scaling into a unit sphere. This dataset is used to establish three benchmarking tasks for evaluating 3D part recognition: fine-grained semantic segmentation and classification. In our case we’ll use it to finetune PointConv which was pretrained on ShapeNet dataset.

You can download ModelNet dataset from the official Princeton website.


Data preparation#

After downloading ModelNet data we need to unzip it.

pip install finetuner
pip install trimesh


Before we go further let’s look at some examples from our data:


Now let’s go to loading our data. We’ll use DocumentArray from the library DocArray. We’ll go through all the files in our directory and we’ll recursively read all files that end with .off. We split the files into two DocumentArrays depending on their uri to train and test.

Finally we save the resulting DocumentArrays into binary files for later use.

import glob
import os
from typing import Optional

import trimesh
from docarray import Document, DocumentArray

train = DocumentArray()
test = DocumentArray()
data_path = 'ModelNet40'
all_docs = DocumentArray.from_files(os.path.join(data_path,'/**/**/*.off'))
for doc in all_docs:
    if 'test' in doc.uri:


Model Training#

Now that we have our data ready, we need a model that creates embeddings so that we can later use these embeddings for searching similar matches for different queries. A lot of work and research has been done in the field of 3D data embeddings and there are some powerful models like PointConv which have been trained on ShapeNet dataset

In order to not reinvent the wheel we will use this model. We will also use Jina’s 3D Mesh Encoder which wraps these two models in an executor. This executor receives Documents containing point sets data in its blob attribute, with shape (N, 3) and encodes them to embeddings of shape (D,). Now, the following pretrained models are ready to be used to create embeddings:

  • PointConv-Shapenet-d512: A PointConv model finetuned on ShapeNet dataset, resulting in 512 dimension of embeddings.

  • PointConv-Shapenet-d1024: A PointConv model finetuned on ShapeNet dataset, resulting in 1024 dimension of embeddings.

As we already have an Encoder that uses PointConv to embed data let’s use it.

git clone

We also import necessary libraries:

import pathlib
from functools import partial

import numpy as np
import torch
from docarray import Document, DocumentArray
from executor.models import MeshDataModel

import finetuner
from finetuner.tuner.pytorch.losses import TripletLoss
from finetuner.tuner.pytorch.miner import TripletEasyHardMiner

We define some helper functions for preprocessing and sampling. We convert every Document into a point cloud tensor using .load_uri_to_point_cloud_tensor, we can also pass the number of point you want, here we pass 2048.

Along with loading point clouds, we also assign the finetuner_label as a tag. This label will be later used during finetuning.

def random_sample(pc, num):
    permutation = np.arange(len(pc))
    pc = np.array(pc).astype('float32')
    pc = pc[permutation[:num]]
    return pc

def preprocess(doc: 'Document', num_points: int = 1024, data_aug: bool = True):
    doc.tags['finetuner_label'] = doc.uri.split('/')[2]
    points = random_sample(doc.tensor, num_points)

    points = points - np.expand_dims(np.mean(points, axis=0), 0)  # center
    dist = np.max(np.sqrt(np.sum(points ** 2, axis=1)), 0)
    points = points / dist  # scale

    if data_aug:
        theta = np.random.uniform(0, np.pi * 2)
        rotation_matrix = np.array(
            [[np.cos(theta), -np.sin(theta)], [np.sin(theta), np.cos(theta)]]
        points[:, [0, 2]] = points[:, [0, 2]].dot(rotation_matrix)  # random rotation
        points += np.random.normal(0, 0.02, size=points.shape)  # random jitter
    return points

In the following code snippet we create MeshData model which encapsulates a PointConv model with 512 dimensions, we then load training and evaluation data from the binary files we saved before. We create an optimizer and a learning rate scheduler. In this case with use an Adam optimizer and MultiStepLR scheduler but you can change those depending on your data and preferences.

model = MeshDataModel(model_name='pointconv', embed_dim=512) # create pointconv model with 512 dimensions

train = DocumentArray.load_binary('train_data_modelnet.bin') # load train dataset
eval = DocumentArray.load_binary('test_data_modelnet.bin') # load eval dataset

def configure_optimizer(model):
    from torch.optim import Adam
    from torch.optim.lr_scheduler import MultiStepLR
    # create Adam optimizer with MultistepLR scheduler
    optimizer = Adam(model.parameters(), lr=5e-4)
    scheduler = MultiStepLR(optimizer, milestones=[30, 60], gamma=0.5)

    return optimizer, scheduler

We leverage finetuner’s mining strategy to improve and finetune the embeddings. By this we mean that the finetuner will use the mentioned label coming with every Document which we specified during preprocessing and will sample it as a positive example and then sample examples with different label as negatives.

The triplet loss’s goal is to pull Documents with same class together and those with different classes away from each other thus improving the final representation. If you wish to learn more about triplet loss and miners click here.

We also use our built-in callback WandBLogger to be able to track our training. Note you must first download the wandb client and log into your account which you can do like this:

pip install wandb
wandb login

To learn more about callbacks click here, now let’s go to finetuning:

from finetuner.tuner.callback import WandBLogger 

logger = WandBLogger()

tuned_model =
    preprocess_fn=partial(preprocess, num_points=2048, data_aug=True),
        miner=TripletEasyHardMiner(pos_strategy='easy', neg_strategy='semihard')
# saving the finetuner model
    str(checkpoint_dir / f'finetuned-pointconv-d512.pth'),

Evaluating embedding quality & Results#

Now let’s see whether we made an improvement or not. We will use the training data as index and the testing data as query. We’ll embed them both and then search for test 3d objects (the query) in our training data (index). We do this using the pretrained model and the finetuned model and then compare top matches.

We’ll use two metrics to evaluate our two models (pretrained, straight out of the box model and finetuned model) on the search task:

[email protected] : We’ll calculate the average precision at 1, 5 and 10, then we’ll calculate the mean of those average precisions for all documents in our test data (these are our queries) because we care about how accurate and precise our retrieved 3D objects are.

[email protected]: We’ll calculate nDCG at 1,5 and 10, then we’ll calculate the mean of those for all documents in our test data because we care about the order of the retrieved 3D objects.

Complete source code
from finetuner.tuner.evaluation import Evaluator

train = DocumentArray.load_binary('../train_data_modelnet.bin') # load train dataset
val = DocumentArray.load_binary('../test_data_modelnet.bin') # load test dataset


tuned_model = MeshDataModel(model_name='pointconv', embed_dim=512) # create pointconv model with 512 dimensions
pretrained_model = MeshDataModel(model_name='pointconv', embed_dim=512)

tuned_model.load_state_dict(torch.load('checkpoints/finetuned-pointconv-d512.pth')) # load finetuned weights


evaluator_finetuned = Evaluator(val, train, tuned_model)

evaluator_pretrained = Evaluator(val, train, pretrained_model)

The difference is shown in the tables below:

[email protected] pre-trained fine-tuned
[email protected] 0.147 0.719
[email protected] 0.113 0.697
[email protected] 0.100 0.686
[email protected] pre-trained fine-tuned
[email protected] 0.563 0.927
[email protected] 0.617 0.931
[email protected] 0.647 0.935

Now let’s do some queries ourselves and check the visualizations

Complete source code
train_da = DocumentArray.load_binary('../train_data_modelnet.bin') # load train dataset
eval_da = DocumentArray.load_binary('../test_data_modelnet.bin') # load eval dataset


tuned_model = MeshDataModel(model_name='pointconv', embed_dim=512) # create pointconv model with 512 dimensions

train_da.embed(tuned_model, batch_size=128, device='cuda')
eval_da.embed(tuned_model, batch_size=128, device='cuda')

eval_da.match(train_da, limit=10)



Pretrained PointConv:


Finetuned PointConv:




Pretrained PointConv:


Finetuned PointConv:


We can clearly see that after finetuning PointConv has enhanced embeddings, and that’s how you finetune a 3D model.